DNA HAPLOGROUP TREES FOR BEN R. LONDEREE

 

The goal in this paper is to construct my ancient ancestry from the beginnings of human kind to around 6,000-7,000 years before present (BP) or later.   In the process, I hope to learn more about factors that influenced this ancestry.

In contrast to typical genealogy, there are no name, birth, baptism, marriage, death, and burial paper records available when researching ancient history.  Fortunately, there are records within the cells of my body in the form of DNA that can provide a reasonably clear picture of my evolution.  A map of generalized human DNA (the human genome) was developed and refined 2001-2004 and included about three billion base pairs of molecules.[9]

DNA is found in every cell of the body.  Two copies of the entire DNA molecule are found in each cell nucleus, more specifically the nucleolus, and called nuclear DNA.  This DNA contains 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.  A child’s autosomal chromosomes are a 50/50 random mixture of the autosomal DNA received from each parent.  However, each child receives a completely intact sex chromosome from each parent, an X chromosome from the mother and either an X (female) of Y (male, yDNA) chromosome from the father.[15][19]  The chromosomes are made up of genes (coding region) and noncoding regions between the genes.  The latter includes activator/deactivator sites that turn genes on and off.[9][16]  All of the genes within the chromosomes control the genetic characteristics that will be manifested by that person. 

Another form of DNA is found in mitochondria and is called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA).  The mtDNA contains only that small part of the DNA that controls oxidative metabolism in the cell.  There are many copies of mtDNA in each cell related to the oxidative capacity of the cell.[16] [20] Endurance training will increase that oxidative capacity in the active cells and thus the amount of mitochondrial material and mtDNA in the respective cells.[23]  The mtDNA comes only from the mother.[19]

The earliest humans had DNA profiles that they received from their ancestors.  Generally DNA is resistant to change and is passed on to children pretty much intact.  However, with such complex molecules that are split and recombined during conception, there are bound to be some mistakes which are called mutations.  Scientists have adopted the term Short Tandem Repeat Polymorphism (STR) for some mutations.  The measurement is the number of times a segment (allele) is repeated in a row.  As part of the new DNA, the STRs are passed on to children.  Some STRs die off but robust ones may become a family characteristic.  The process continues with subsequent conceptions so that a particular group of STRs become a characteristic of a clan and eventually a geographic population – perhaps 1,000 years after its origin.  When the characteristic has become so ubiquitous, modern day genetic genealogists reclassify it as a haplogroup.

More recently a haplogroup has been identified by mutation at a specific location on the DNA molecule and is called a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP– pronounced snip).  Each SNP is assigned a combination of letters and numbers for identification purposes. Different labs may identify a SNP using a different combination of letters and numbers.  Over time these differences usually get worked out, but the old names tend to stick around.  It gets confusing.  There is good but not perfect agreement between haplogroups determined with SNPs versus predicted using STRs.  SNPs are the standard.  SNPs happen much less often than STRs so they are a coarser measure of when and geographically where they occurred.

In the meantime other STRs and SNPs develop and remain within the DNA of descendants.  With increasing population size, there will be migration and new STRs and SNPs will define new geographic sets of characteristics.  Over tens of thousands of years, marked divergences have developed in the human genome.[8]

The father to son to grandson passage of the mainly intact yDNA serves as a paternal identifier for males.  There likely will be only minor changes in key STR profiles for 10-20 generations.  The key STRs are called markers and were selected because they have sequences that are relatively easy to find; they have high variability in length; and they mutate more than other segments.  Similarly, mother to daughter to granddaughter passage of mainly intact mtDNA serves as an identifier of mother to daughter relationships.  However, the fact that females typically adopt their husband’s surname makes it much more difficult to follow female lineages without complete records of marriages and other name changes.[8]

So if two males have the same exact DNA profile, they must have a recent common ancestor.  With increasing differences in the DNA profile, the common ancestor must be increasingly more remote.  If two or more people have the same DNA profile and all but one knows his family tree, the remaining person who doesn’t know all of his ancestors hopefully can identify a common ancestor and learn more about his lineage.[8]  In this manner, using a 37 STR marker yDNA test, I was able to deduce that my earliest known male ancestor was Rene le jeune Landry.  From other sources I learned that Rene was born about 1634 some place in France, probably southwest of Paris.  This 10 generation process worked very well and probably will be useful out to about 20 generations.  For deeper probes SNPs are the way to go.

  First let’s set the background for the use of SNP testing.  Mutations are sequential in nature.  In other words, one mutation (A) will occur and it will be followed by an additional mutation (B).  If B is found with testing, A will be there as well because it was a predecessor.  If another mutation occurs (C) and it is found in a test, both A and B will be found as well because both were predecessors.  In this example, A, B, and C are SNPs. 

Much recent research has attempted to identify and order the SNP sequences into a branching tree format.  As of 2009, about 18,000,000 SNPs had been identified and 7,000,000 validated in the yDNA in the human male population.[33]  The SNPs identified probably include duplicates.  The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) has assumed the role of maintaining the database for the rapidly changing array of SNPs and ordering them into a Paternal Phylogenic Tree from yDNA samples[21] based on reports from labs all over the world.  The oldest SNPs form the trunk of each tree and newer SNPs form smaller and smaller branches.  A search of the 2018 ISOGG Index listed more than 73,000 validated Y-SNPs that have been placed in the Paternal Phylogenic Tree.[31]  Therefore much progress has been made but there is a long way to go.  Similarly, there is a Maternal Phylogenic Tree that is maintained and updated periodically by Mannis van Oven.  As of 18 February 2016 the Maternal Tree had 5,400 haplogroups.[39]  As of 7 November 2016, there had been 154,206,854 SNP submissions and 100,877,027 validated  for Homo sapiens (male and female) according to the NCBI-NIH genetic sequence database.[14]

Geographic origin of SNPs is another hot area of research.  One approach has been to determine SNPs in fossils found in ancient burial sites and date them using various methods, e. g. carbon 14.  A problem is that the pool of sampled buried individuals is very small and may not be representative.   Other problems have been sample deterioration and contamination.  Another method involves determining the diversity of SNPs in current residents.  The latter approach assumes that the SNP diversity in the place of origin would be the highest and diversity would decline with distance from that point.  Sometimes a natural event might alter their location, e. g. flooding, drought, glacier, etc.  Researchers use creative research designs to get around the problems innate with these methods.  For example, glacier data might be useful for dating and environmental conditions.  One study reviewed the ancient data as well as current data and concluded that there had been nearly complete replacement of the ancient residents by “new” residents in Europe.28   To make a long story short, identification of geographic locations for SNP origins is improving but there is a need for more improvement.

Determining when a SNP originated was another issue.  Determining the sequence of mutations in a phylogenic tree at least puts the SNPs on an ordinal scale.  The two series of Wikipedia articles provided many of the estimates.[10][11]  Other sources were used as well[29][39]  The dates provided sometimes differed by a lot.  The dates that I used were a blend of all of these sources with adjustments to maintain at least an ordinal scale. 

An extension of the origin dating is Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA).  An illustration will be used to define the concept.  We present two hypothetical lineages: (A>B>C>D>E) and (A>B>C>D>F ).  A, B, C, and D are common ancestors of E and F, but D is the MRCA.  TMRCA will never exceed time of the origin but the former most likely will be less because the MRCA will be a descendant of the person in which the mutation originally occurred.  Recall that a SNP classification likely might be about 1,000 years after the mutation first occurred.

Using SNP information, the DNA analysis process can be extended back thousands of years although precision diminishes considerably.  Recall that SNPs are a coarser measure than STRs.  SNPs are identified and instead of specific dates, years, or decades; were talking about thousands or tens of thousands years.  Instead of specific people were talking about sub-populations.  An initial decision will depend on whether to search for the paternal line (use yDNA from the nucleus) or maternal line (use mtDNA.)  A typical SNP data file for an individual will contain many thousands of SNPs and computer programs are necessary to sort out the most recent SNP.  Unless you have ordered a deep clade test, e. g. Big Y, full mtDNA, next generation sequencing, or equivalent subclade tests, the result probably will not be your most recent SNP.   If you know your most recent SNP and you can locate it on the appropriate Phylogenic Tree, you can trace it back through the branches to the trunk of the tree.  Your most recent SNP places you in a Haplotype that serves as an approximate geographic locator with an approximate date of origin.  Older SNPs act as earlier approximate geographic locators and dates.  When your SNPs are identified and put in the proper order, you have your personal Haplogroup Tree.  Since the geographic location and time when a defining SNP first appeared are known approximately, you can develop a rough migration map showing when and where your ancestors have lived.

Several years ago a test at FTDNA identified my Haplogroup as M269.  Recently a test at 23andMe identified my paternal Haplotype as R-P311 (aka L151, L11, & PF6542) which is three mutations beyond M269.  Neither of these was a deep clade test.  I found the R-P311 location on the Paternal Phylogenic Tree[30]  and worked backwards to the trunk of the tree.  I also used a series of articles on Wikipedia and FTDNA to crosscheck and fine tune my tree.[11][38][39]  The trunk of the tree (Root Y) was the first male human with a continuous linkage to modern humans.  Obviously he is unknown but he was nicknamed “Adam” and probably was a member of Homo erectus about 1,900,000 years BP.  There were at least several separate lines of archaic humans, e. g. Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo neanderthalensis, and Homo denisovan to name a few.  The last two lines overlapped Homo sapiens on the timeline but became extinct outside of Africa before the end of the Pleistocene Period (Ice Age).[36]  Apparently there was intermixing between these lines of humans.  For example, many European non-Africans including me have small amounts of Neanderthal DNA and many South Asians have a small amount of Denisovan DNA.  In Table 1 below, I have posted my Paternal Haplogroup Tree extended as far as possible without deep clade results.  Only some branches where defining mutations occurred are shown.  Figure 1 shows the proposed migration routes of my paternal ancestors based on my yDNA Haplogroups.

 

                                                        TABLE 1: PATERNAL HAPLOGROUP TREE FOR BEN R. LONDEREEa 

 

 

 

Origin

Origin

TMRCA

              Clade

Branchb

Defining SNPc

Locationd

Years Agoe

Years Agof

Root Y

Adam”g

 

Africa

1,900,000

 

Archaic Humansh

 

 

Africa

 

 

.A00

H. sapieni

AF6/L1284

Africa

  235,000

  235,000

..A0-T

 

L1085

Africa

 

 

…A1

 

P305

Africa

 

 

….A1b

 

P108

Africa

 

 

.....BTj

 

M91

Africa

  130,700

    88,000

......CT

 

M168/PF1416

Africa

    88,000

    68,500

……..CF

 

P143

Africa

    70,000

 

………F

 

M89/PF2746

S. Cen. Asia

    65,900

    48,800

……….GHIJK

 

F1329/M3658/PF2622+

S. Cen. Asia

    48,500

    46,200

………..HIJK

 

F929/M578/PF3494+

S. Cen. Asia

    47,500

 

…………IJK

 

L15/M523/PF3492+

S. Cen. Asia

    47,200

    42,900

………….K

K

M9

S. Cen. Asia

    47,000

    45,400

…………..K2

 

M526/PF5979

S. Cen. Asia

    46.000

 

……………K2b

 

M1221/P331+

S. Cen. Asia

    45,000

 

…………….K2b2

P

P295/PF5866/S8+

S. Cen. Asia

    35,000

    31,900

……………..K2b2a

P1

M45/PF5962

S. Cen. Asia

   

 

………………K2b2a2

R

M207+

W. Asia

    31,900

    28,200

……………….R1

 

M173/P241

W. Asia

    28,200

    28,100

………………..R1b

R-M343l

M343/PF6242

W. Asiak

    22,800

    20,400

…………………R1b1

 

L278

W. Asiak

    18,700

 

………………….R1b1a

 

L754/PF6269+

W. Asiak

    14,000

 

…………………..R1b1a1

 

L338/PF6468+

W. Asiak

 

 

……………………R1b1a1a

 

P297/PF6398

W. Asiak

 

 

…………………….R1b1a1a2

R-M269l

M269/PF6517

W. Asiak

     6,500

      6,400

……………………..R1b1a1a2a

 

L23/PF6534/S141

W. Asiak

     6,300

 

………………………R1b1a1a2a1

 

L51/M412/PF6536+

 

     6,200

 

……………………….R1b1a1a2a1a

 

L151/L11/P311

S.E. Europe

     4,900

      4,800

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a This table is based on the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (2017). Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2018, Version: 13.58, Date: 6 March 2018, http://www.isogg.org/tree/ 8 March 2018.[30]; a Wikipedia series[11]; and a Eupedia series.[29]

b Major branches

c These are some of the defining SNPs.  Multiple listings are some of the alternative names from different labs for a particular SNP.  A + means there are more.

d Place where the SNPs were thought to have first appeared.  Multiple major migrations have created considerable dispersal.  Migrations have occurred because of environmental factors (e. g. drought, glaciers, volcanos, & over-crowding), and changing food sources to name two.

e The reported number of years ago that the defining SNPs are thought to have first appeared varies greatly in the literature.  The dates should decrease as you move down the table, i. e. A>B>C, etc. because the mutations were in a sequential order.  Therefore I modified them for an ordinal data fit.

f The number of years ago to the most recent common ancestor.  See text for more details.

g “Adam” was the first male in the genus Homo.  There may have been many contemporary males but their lines became extinct.  “Adam’s” lineage is the only one that led to modern humans or in other words, every non-African alive today is a descendant of “Adam.”  Many Africans descended from “Adam” as well, but there are some descendant lines of archaic humans in the current population of Africa.  At least one male descendant of “Adam” in each generation must have begot a son who also begot a son for this line to have continued to “Eve.”  One of “Adam’s” male descendants married “Eve” about 190,000 years BP.

h The lineage between “Adam” and Homo sapiens is open to debate.  “Adam” probably was a member of H. erectus.  In the ISOGG Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree there were about 200 defining SNPs that occurred during about 1,665,000 years between “Adam” and Homo sapiens.

i Homo sapien was the first anatomically modern man.  There were many mutations between “Adam” and Homo sapien.  All living “Out of Africa” humans descended from this line of males.  Some descendants of other archaic species still exist in Africa.

j Haplogroup BT is ancestral to all non-African Haplogroups.

k Probably Anatolia, Caucasus, or the Pontic Steppe (south of, between, or north of the Black and Caspian Seas; respectively.)

l These Haplogroups account for a large percentage of males in Western Europe as R-M269 and its subclades.

 

My test results from 23andMe identified my maternal terminal SNP as H6a1a.  The test was not deep clade.  My Maternal Haplogroup Tree starting with SNP H6a1a was constructed in a manner similar to my Paternal Tree using a Maternal Phylogenic Tree[10][39] and is shown in Table 2.  Only some haplogroups where defining mutations occurred are shown here.  The Maternal Tree is shorter because mtDNA mutates much less often than yDNA [10] and there was considerably less time involved.  Figure 2 shows the proposed migration routes of my maternal ancestors based on my mitochondrial Haplogroups.

 

                                                        TABLE 2: MATERNAL HAPLOGROUP TREE FOR BEN R. LONDEREEa 

 

 

 

Origin

Origin

              Clade

Branchb

Defining SNPc

Locationd

Years Agoe

L

Eve”n

 

E. Africa

190,000

.L1-6

 

C146T

Africa

140,000

..L3

 

769/1018/16311

E. Africa

  67,000

…N

N

8701/9540/10398/10873+

S. Cen. Asiao

  59,000

….R

R

12,705/16223

S. Cen. Asiao

  57,000

…..RO

 

73/22,719

W. Asia

  40,000

……HV

 

T14766C

W. Asia

  22,000

…….H

H

G2706A/T7028C

W. Asia

  13,000

……..H6

 

T239C/T16362C/A16482G

W. Asiap

  11,000

………H6a

 

G3915A/G9380A

W. Asiap

    9,500

………H6a1

 

A4727G

W. Asiap

    8,700

………H6a1a

 

T11253C

W. Asia

    7,100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Footnotes a-l are located at the bottom of the previous table.

m The information in this table came from a series of Wikipedia articles,[10] a series of articles on the specific Haplogroups,[38] and van Oven, M. and M. Kayser.[39]

n The first female in this line is unknown but has been nicknamed “Eve”.  There probably were many earlier and contemporary females but their lines became extinct.  All living, “Out of Africa” humans descended from this female.  Her spouse was a descendant of “Adam.”

o Perhaps W. Asia.

p Probably Anatolia, Caucasus, or Eurasian Steppe.

 

 

                           Figure 1 My Proposed Male Migrations Based on yDNA Haplogroups

                                                http://www.landrygenealogy.com/showmedia.php?mediaID=175

                                                Click on return arrow to return to text.

 

                                                                             Figure 2 My Proposed Female Migrations Based on mtDNA Haplogroups                                  

                                                http://www.landrygenealogy.com/showmedia.php?mediaID=176

                                                Click on return arrow to return to text.

 

The migration maps probably are an over simplification of what actually happened.  It is thought that there were migrations back and forth.  My earlier ancestors were nomadic hunter-gatherers.  Farming was not a way of life until later.  Therefore they followed the food sources as seasons changed.  Also when glaciers moved south, the food sources moved south as well.  The map suggests that clans moved as a group.  I am sure there were some adventurous groups who struck out on their own early and many who stayed when others moved on.  Generally pinpointing origins depends on the assumption that diversity of a haplogroup is greatest at the point of origin and decreases with distance from the origin.

It appears that my ancestors spent tens of thousands of years in Africa.  At some point in time (probably 70,000 - 45,000 years BP) when glaciers probably had created drought conditions in Africa and a low Ocean level, my paternal ancestors migrated out of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea; travelled east along the Indian Ocean to current India.  Others continued on east to East Asia and island nations of Oceania.  There probably were stops along the way that lasted a generation or more. 

My paternal ancestors roamed the South Central/Central part of Asia for thousands of years as hunters and gatherers with Stone Age culture.  The time frame ranges from about 70,000 BP to about 33,000 BP.  Appearance of the following haplogroups occurred during this time span: M89, F1329, F929, L15, M9, M526, M1221, P295, and M45.

The origin of Haplogroups M207 and M173 may have been in W. Asia.  M207 occurred about 32,000 BP and M173 about 23,000 BP.

The place of origin of Haplogroup R1b (R-M343) is thought to have been Western Asia[6][7] probably Anatolia, Southern Caucasus, or Nothern Mesopotamia[6]  Haplogroup Rb1 and its brethren (Haplogroup R1a [aka M420]) roamed the area between, north, and south of the Black and Caspian Seas (Caucasus, Pontic Steppe, and Anatolia, respectively).[6][7]  Originally Haplogroup R1b was concentrated more south of Caucasus[ 6] while Haplogroup R1a was more concentrated in the Pontic Steppe.  Later many R1b people migrated to the Western Pontic Steppe and R1a became more concentrated in the eastern and northern parts of the Pontic Steppe.[6]  However, both R1a and R1b were found throughout the region.[6]  Collectively R1a, R1b, and their neighboring tribes are credited with domestication of horses, cattle, sheep, and goats; development of a language that became the basis for the Indo-European group of languages; development of the wheel, wagons, and chariots; and development of bronze for use in tools and weapons.[6]  Haplogroups L278, L754, L338, P297, M269, and L23 arose during this period which ranges from about 23,000 BP to about 6,200 BP.  Haplogroup M269 may have had its origin in Anatolia but eventually migrated to the Pontic Steppe area north of the Black Sea.[6]  Haplogroup L23 probably arose there.

Let me digress briefly to set the stage for the next set of migrations.  Farming had developed in the Middle East and had spread in all directions.  Farming was a much more efficient in land usage and stable culture than the hunting and gathering lifestyle.  After the last ice age maximum, farmers from the Middle East helped to repopulated Europe.  It is thought that the migration was predominantly males who then married local women after arriving in Europe.[32]  These migrations are thought to have occurred between 10,000 BP and 6,200 BP.

Environmental factors and increasing population led to migratory pressures on the Pontic Steppe, Caucasus, and Anatolia.  Haplogroup R1a and subclades primarily and R1b and subclades to a lesser extent raided Northern Europe from the steppe.  Many in Haplogroup R1b and subclades returned to Anatolia where they picked up some farming experience but maintained their herding lifestyle.  Eventually Haplogroup R1b gradually overran Europe to the Atlantic shores and beyond.  Hammer[19] proposed a migration path through Anatolia as Haplogroup M269 and through centers of expansion for these new migrants into Bulgaria as Haplogroup P311; into Germany as Haplogroup P312 and Haplogroup U106.  Haplogroup U106 went to Denmark and Scandanavia.  Haplogroup P312 went from Germany to Italy as Haplogroup U152; to France as Haplogroup Z195 and on to Spain as Haplogroup SRY2627; to England as Haplogroup L21; and to Iceland as M222.  Hammer’s hypothesis proposed that as one center became populated, some of the descendants moved elsewhere to find land to start new grazing areas for their livestock.  When that area filled up, the new descendants would move on to newer open areas.  An article in Eupedia [6] differed in some aspects from Hammer and stated that the descendants of Haplogroup R1b migrated to SE Europe (L51, L151, & P311) via a northern route; then to Central Europe (P312); and then spread out to Italy (U152), Scandinavia (U106, L238, & DF19), England (L21), Wales (L21 & M222), France (L21 & DF27), and Spain (DF27).  Most of these haplogroups can be found throughout Europe, but they are concentrated in the areas described above.  The Haplogroup R1b migrations to Europe occurred from about 6200 BP to 3200 BP.  These paths are shown in Figure 1.  From 6200 BP to 4500 BP most of the Rb1 migration flowed into the Danube Basin.  From 4500 BP to 3200 BP migration reached the rest of Europe and the British Isles.[6]

The resident farmers in Europe probably were no match for the invading warriors from the east with their horses, wagons, chariots, and bronze weapons.  Many of the resident farming males probably were killed or fled and the women were raped and/or taken as wives by the invaders.  The invaders became the ruling class and formed fiefdoms led by a king and chieftains.  These leaders practiced polygamy and had many children.[6]  Descendants of these warriors from Western Asia make up a large proportion of the present day residents of Western Europe.

Modern haplogroup density maps show the highest densities of Haplogroup R1b and some of its subclades along the Atlantic border of Europe and decreasing eastwardly.  That led some genetic genealogists to theorize that the migrants arrived by ships and expanded to the east.  Others dispelled this by showing that genetic diversity was higher in Eastern Europe and lower as you move west.[35][37]  Genetic diversity should be higher closer to the origin because there is more time for mutations to occur.

There are different opinions about the original migration route used by my maternal ancestors.  Migration probably was across the southern part of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.  From there migration may have been to India and then to the Near East and Caucasus or it may have been directly to the Near East and Caucasus.  Haplogroups H, H6, H6a1a, and others have been found in Anatolia, Caucasus, and the Pontic Steppe.[6]   Haplogroup H6 was not found in Europe before the Bronze Age.[5] but Haplogroup H was found in Yamna (24%)[18] , Corded Ware (21%)[3], Catacomb (25%)[2], and Unetice (43%)[17] cultures that had expanded into Europe with the male Haplogroups R1a and R1b.  My Maternal Haplotype of H6a1a originated about 7,100 years BP probably in Anatolia, Caucasus, or the Pontic Steppe.  See Figure 2.

I ordered the Rb1-M343&M269v2 Backbone SNP Pack test in March 2018 and mtFull Sequence test in April 2018.  I anticipate that my pending DNA testing upgrade reports will extend my haplotype lineages beyond P311 and H6a1a.

Let me briefly discuss events that influenced the concentration of specific SNPs.  Life was harsh and dangerous.  Evolutionary forces were at work.  Some examples of the challenges were new diseases, drought, glaciers, competition with other groups in a crowded area, large volcanic explosions, tsunamis, strikes by comets and/or asteroids, large scale flooding, etc.  If a particular mutation allowed a group to cope better with such disturbances, they were more likely to survive and pass their DNA profile to their descendants.  In the case of early modern humans who had a larger frontal area in the brain; the ability to think, use technology to their advantage, communicate, socially organize, and take reasonable risks would improve chances to cope with challenges better than their competitors, e.g. neanderthals.[27]

Near extinctions (bottlenecks) are proposed when genetic diversity in a population is lower than expected.[12]  Based on evidence of low diversity in human DNA and extinctions,[26] some scientists have concluded that at least two (probably three) major events happened that dramatically reduced the human population: 1) around 70,000 BP and 2) later during the last glacial maximum in Europe (before 20,000 BP-10,000 BP).  Some scientists have attributed the former to the eruption of the Toba volcano on Sumatra.  It was the largest eruption on earth in the last 28 million years.  Current India was covered with 1-3 meters of volcanic ash and Greenland’s average temperature dropped 10o C-16o C according to analysis of ice cores.  The eruption has been hypothesized as the trigger for the start of the last glacial period.[40]  As you would expect other scientists disagree with this hypothesis.  Toba occurred in the middle of the ongoing last glacial period.  There were no huge rapid changes in the global sea level that would be expected with a rapid ice melt.[25] 

In the second case during the last glacial maximum and later, there were major population changes.  Neanderthals and denisovans became extinct throughout Eurasia, Haplogroup M vanished from Europe, and Haplogroup R1b (mostly as R-M269 and its subclades) became dominant in Western Europe.[28][34][36]   During the last glacial maximum, the ice and the permafrost extended to current Italy, Spain, and Greece.[1]  The permafrost region would not support a large population.  The humans and animals that had roamed Europe were confined mostly into three Mediteranian peninsular areas.  Many people must have perished.  There was a volcanic eruption near Naples, Italy.  Some of those on the Iberian Peninsula may have returned to Africa.  These factors would not explain extinction in Asia where humans could have moved farther south.  Perhaps lower adaptability in neanderthals and interbreeding with sapiens played a part.  An asteroid may have landed off the east coast of North America and created a very large tsunami.   Berekoven[21] presented a brief review of possible factors.  When the ice receded, new Haplogroups gradually moved in from W. Asia and genetically overwhelmed the remaining, earlier residents.[28]    The new residents brought farming technology with them from Western Asia and the Near East which afforded them an advantage over previous residents. [28]

The waxing and waning of glaciers was a major factor in the lives of humans.  The temperature changes have been explained as due to changes in solar radiation resulting from an interacting periodicity among the earth’s eccentric revolution about the sun, its changing axial tilt, and its precession (axis wobble.)[13]  Variables on earth that reduced solar radiation had an effect as well.  Glaciers have impacted the earth in number of ways.  Ice reflects solar heat away from earth.  Glaciers trapped large amounts of water resulting in a large difference between high and low ocean levels as much as 150 meters (about 492 feet).[25][40]  In some areas lower water would have created land bridges between land masses, especially in the islands in Oceania off of the coast of Southeast Asia.  Water trapped in ice led to drought conditions south of the northern hemisphere glaciers.  And glaciers changed the topography through erosion and depositions.

Probably almost everybody has heard a statement similar to this: the DNA of Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis are 99+% the same.  If so, how can the two species be so different?  The answer is that for a gene to be active it must be turned on.  Various stimuli can turn a gene on/off via an activator/deactivator site on the DNA.  Scientists have determined that the profile of on and off genes differed considerably between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis.   Even modern humans’ profiles differ.  Identical twins probably differ at this level also.[20]

In modern humans about 4% of the DNA has Neanderthal origins.  This factor is taken to mean that the two species interbred.  However, no yDNA from Neanderthal men has been found in modern human DNA; it is all X-linked DNA.  That has led to the hypothesis that neanderthal male offspring were not viable in this cross-species breeding.  Scientists identified four y-chromosome genes that differed in the two species and three of them resembled those in modern humans that lead to an immune reaction of the mother to a male fetus and thus a miscarriage.[24]  This issue may have contributed to the extinction of neanderthals.  Modern humans also interbred with Homo denisovan in Siberia, Southeast Asia and Oceania.[22]

There are competitive camps of scientists who study and espouse different theories about the origin of modern humans and how we got to where we are now.  The radical elements in each camp do everything they can to debunk the opposing theories or methodologies.  One conflicting area is the “Out of Africa Theory” which states that there was one origin of humans in Africa and every living human can trace their origin to that source.  The other camp argues for multiple origins that developed independently.[27]  I believe that the majority of scientists favor the former theory but they have had to adjust their theory to account for what appears to have been multiple small waves of archaic humans and modern humans out of Africa over large spans of time.  Fossil sites[4] have been found suggesting that “Out of Africa” migrations of modern humans occurred as early as 120,000 years BP and archaic humans left Africa much earlier.  Many of the earlier smaller colonies probably died out because of a lack of enough genetic diversity to withstand challenges to life.  Nevertheless, some of these colonies may have survived and mutated enough to generate the multi-origin theory.  Even with these many waves of out-going humans, the biggest time of migration “out of Africa” occurred 70,000-45,000 years BP.  The conditions in Africa must have been severe during this period.

Wikipedia suggests that the Landry surname is French but has origins in Germany.  This derivation would be consistent with the proposed migration path through German settlements to France.

My paternal lineage, Landry, apparently settled in France, probably southwest of Paris.  My DNA test upgrade may provide additional specifics.  Farming probably was the primary form of sustenance, but only aristocracy owned land.  Conditions probably were harsh for peasants.  The opportunity to start over in the new world probably was appealing to my ancestors in the 1600s A. D.

My maternal (mother-mother) lineage has been difficult to follow.  Of course, the surname changed every generation and most genealogies don’t follow females very far back.  What I tentatively have determined so far includes: Morrison, Vanderryt, Hawbaker, Whitmer, Shank, Rush, Skinner, Higgins, and Yates in that order back to about 1626 A. D.  All were residents of what currently is the USA, so where their ancestors lived is unknown.  Wikipedia listed Yates as common in Ireland, but Yates’ mother may have born somewhere else.  Figure 2 suggests that the origin of Haplogroup H6a1a was Eastern Europe or Western Asia.

 

References

1.      Anon, “A map of vegetation patterns during the last glacial maximum”, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Last_glacial_vegetation_map.png

2.      Anon, “Catacomb Culture (c. 2800-1900BCE)”, Eupedia.com: Genetics, https://www.eupedia.com/genetics/catacomb culture.shtml

3.      Anon, “Corded Ware Culture (c. 3000-2350)”, Eupedia.com: Genetics, https://www.eupedia.com/genetics/corded_ware_culture.shtml

4.      Anon,Early human migrations”,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_human_migrations

5.      Anon, “Haplogroup H (mtDNA)”, Eupedia.com: Genetics, https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_H_mtDNA.shtml

6.      Anon, “Haplogroup R1b,” Eupedia.com: Genetics, https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1b_Y-DNA.shtml

7.      Anon, “Haplogroup R1b”, Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1b

8.      Anon, “Genealogical DNA Test”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genealogical_DNA_test

9.      Anon, “Human Genome”,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_genome

10.  Anon, “Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_mitochondrial_DNA_haplogroup  Series of papers that start at this URL.  Each haplogroup has its own pages.

11.  Anon, “Human Y-chromosomeDNA haplogroup,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Y-chromosome_DNA_haplogroup  Series of papers that start at this URL.  Each haplogroup has its own pages.

12.  Anon, “Low genetic variation”, https://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/conservation_04

13.  Anon, “Milankovitch Cycles and Glaciation”,  http://www.indiana.edu/~geol105/images/gaia_chapter_4/milankovitch.htm

14.  Anon, NCBI Database. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/SNP/snp_summary.cgi?view+summary=view+summary&build_id=149

15.  Anon, “Nuclear DNA” “Mitochondrial DNA”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_DNA

16.  Anon, “Richards on the Brain”, http://www.richardsonthebrain.com/genome-noncoding-regions/

17.  Anon, “Unetice Culture (c. 2300-1600 BCE)”, Eupedia.com: Genetics,  https://www.eupedia.com/genetics/unetice_culture.shtml

18.  Anon, “Yamna Culture (c. 3500-2500 BCE)”, Eupedia.com: Genetics, https://www.eupedia.com/genetics/yamna_culture.shtml

19.  Anon, “ Understanding DNA”, https://www.familytreedna.com/understanding-dna.aspx

20.  Begley, Sharon, “DNA Study Shows Why Neanderthals, Modern Humans Are So Different”,  https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/04/18/dna-neanderthals-modern-humans-genes_n_5168730.html

21.  Berekoven, Hans, “The Ice Age and its effect on Migration – MaritimeMysteries”,  https://www.maritimemysteries.org/the-ice-age-and-its-effect-on-human-migration.html

22.  Browning, Sharon R., Brian L. Browning, Ying Zhou, Serena Tucci, and Joshua M. Akey.  “Analysis of Human Sequence Data Reveals Two Pulses of Archaic Denisovan Admixture”, Journal of Cell, 2018:02,031, http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(18)30175-2

23.  Coote, John H., “Adaptations of skeletal muscle mitochondria to exercise training”, Experimental Physiology, https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1113/EP085319

24.  Daley, John, “Humans and Neanderthals May Have Had Trouble Making Male Babies”, https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/humans-and-neanderthals-may-have-had-trouble-making-male-babies-180958701/

25.  Gornitz, Vivien “The Great Ice Meltdown and Rising Seas: Lessons for Tomorrow”, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Godard Institute for Space Studies, June 2012,  https://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/briefs/gornitz_10/

26.  Grabianowski, Ed, “Extinction Events That Almost Wiped Out Humans”, https://io9.gizmodo.com/5501565/extinction-events-that-almost-wiped-out-humans

27.  Gugliotta, Guy, “ The Great Human Migration: Why humans left their African homeland 80,000 years ago to colonize the world”, https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-great-human-migration-13561/

28.  Hammer, Michael, “Origins of R-M269 Diversity in Europe”, FamilyTreeDNA 9th Annual Conference, https://gap.familytreedna.com/media/docs/2013/hammer_m269_diversity_in_europe.pdf

29.  Hay, Maciamo, “Origins, spread and ethnic association of European haplogroups and subclades,” Eupedia.com Genetics, https://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml

30.  ISOGG, ‘Y-DNA Phylogroup Tree 2018”   https://isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_YDNATreeTrunk.html

31.  ISOGG, “Y-dna snp Index on Spreadsheet – 2018”,  https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1UY26FvLE3UmEmYFiXgOy0uezJi_wOut-V5TD0a_6-bE/edit#gid=1934392066

32.  Khan, Razib, “European man perhaps a middle Eastern farmer”, Science Blogs, http://scienceblogs.com/gnxp/2010/01/19/european-man-the-farmer/

33.  Koboldt, Dan, “Whole Genome Sequencing: How Many SNPs Remain?”,  MassGenomics, http://massgenomics.org/2009/06/whole-genome-sequencing-how-many-snps-remain.html

34.  Mooney, Chris, “Climate shifts dramatically upended the lives of prehistoric humans, scientists say”, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/02/04/climate-shifts-dramatically-upended-the-lives-of-prehistoric-humans-according-to-scientists/?utm_term=.b98bda0f8515

35.  Myres, Natalie M., et al. “A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe.” European Journal of Human Genetics, 19,95-101 (2011). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039512/

36.  Than, Ker, “Modern Europe’s Genetic History Starts in the Stone Age.”  https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/13/130423-european-genetic-history-dna-archaeology-science/

37.  Valverde, Laura, et al., “New clues to the evolutionary history of the main European paternal lineage M269: dissection of the Y-SNP S116 in Atlantic Europe and Iberia”, European Journal of Human Genetics (2016) 24, 437-441.

38.  van Oven, Mannis, Haplogroup.org, A series of articles about specific SNPs sponsored by FTDNA, https://haplogroup.org/mtdna/rsrs/l123456/l23456/l2346/l346/l34/l3/n/r/r0/hv/h/h6/h6a/h6a1/h6a1a/

39.  van Oven M, Kayser M. 2009. “Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation.” Hum Mutat 30(2):E386-E394. Build 17 (18 Feb 2016) http://www.phylotree.org.

40.  Weber, George, “Toba: The subject of this website”, http://www.andamans.org/background/ , A series of articles about the volcanic eruption of Toba and its effect on humans.